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PUBLISHED RESEARCH
Cancer Reasearch, Immunotherapy
The Cancer Genes Needed for Immunotherapy Response

Using a large CRISPR-based screen, researchers find possible genetic culprits for patients not having success with immune checkpoint inhibitors. 

Researchers look to improve detection of skin cancer lacking pigment melanin

UNC Lineberger researchers led by Nancy Thomas, MD, PhD, have identified key features linked to amelanotic melanoma, a form of skin cancer that lacks the brown or black color that stems from the pigment melanin.

High-fat diet might raise lung cancer risk

Findings from this large, international cohort consortium suggest that modifying dietary fat intake (ie, replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat) may reduce lung cancer risk, particularly among smokers and for squamous cell and small cell carcinoma.

Genome-wide cancer 'dependency map' now revealed
Initial results reveal more than 760 genetic dependencies across multiple cancers, suggesting opportunities for developing new treatments

In one of the largest efforts to build a comprehensive catalog of genetic vulnerabilities in cancer, researchers have identified more than 760 genes upon which cancer cells from multiple types are strongly dependent for their growth and survival. While many of these dependencies are specific to certain cancer types, about 10 percent are common across multiple cancers, suggesting that a relatively small number of therapies may combat multiple cancer types. Mutations accounted for only a small percentage of dependencies.

Clinical Significance of Four Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer Identified by The Cancer Genome Atlas Project

EBV subtype was associated with the best prognosis, and GS subtype was associated with the worst prognosis. Patients with MSI and CIN subtypes had poorer overall survival than those with EBV subtype but better overall survival than those with GS subtype (P = 0.004 and 0.03 in two cohorts, respectively). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, TCGA risk score was an independent prognostic factor [HR, 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2–1.9; P = 0.001]. Patients with the CIN subtype experienced the greatest benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16–0.94; P = 0.03) and those with the GS subtype had the least benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.36–1.89; P = 0.65).

 

 

 

 

Atezolizumab for Urothelial Cancer, Now Also First-Line

The immunotherapy atezolizumab (Tencetriq, Genentech) has been granted an accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for first-line use in the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) in patients who are not eligible for cisplatin. Atezolizumab was the first cancer immunotherapy approved by the FDA for people with advanced bladder cancer, and it was the first major advance in the field for 30 years. 

Cardiovascular complications: recently approved drugs are relatively underappreciated.

Published: May 18, 2017,  Cureus
DOI: 10.7759/cureus.1258

Abstract:
Cardio-oncology is a medical discipline that identifies, prevents, and treats the cardiovascular complications related to cancer therapy. Due to the remarkable proliferation of new cancer therapies causing cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, heart failure, vascular complications, and cardiac arrhythmia, we provide an extensive, comprehensive revision of the most up-to-date scientific information available on the cardiovascular complications associated with the use of newer, novel chemotherapeutic agents, including their reported incidence, suggested pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, potential treatment, and prevention. The authors consider this topic to be relevant for the clinicians since cardiovascular complications associated with the administration of recently approved drugs are relatively underappreciated.
Hurtado-de-mendoza D, Loaiza-bonilla A, Bonilla-reyes P A, et al. (May 18, 2017) Cardio-Oncology: Cancer Therapy-related Cardiovascular Complications in a Molecular Targeted Era: New Concepts and Perspectives. Cureus 9(5): e1258. doi:10.7759/cureus.1258

Strategies for integrating personalized medicine into healthcare practice
In order for healthcare to transition into personalized medicine, it is necessary for stakeholders to build momentum by implementing a progression of strategies.
Personalized medicine is an evolving field in which physicians use diagnostic tests to identify specific biological markers, often genetic, that help determine which medical treatments and procedures will work best for each patient. By combining this information with an individual's medical records and circumstances, personalized medicine allows doctors and patients to develop targeted treatment and prevention plans.
March 2017, Vol. 14, No. 2, Pages 141-152 , DOI 10.2217/pme-2016-0064
(doi:10.2217/pme-2016-0064)

 

KDR mutation as a novel predictive biomarker of exceptional response to regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer
This is the first reported case of the potential correlation between KDR mutation and regorafenib use for the successful management of a patient with advanced CRC, leading to what is considered an exceptional response.

PMCID: PMC4780686 . This analysis reported a frameshift mutation in adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) (allele frequency of 29.26%), a missense mutation in KRAS (allele frequency of 33.35%). Variants of uncertain significance were also identified in this patient’s sample: a missense variant in ERBB2 (allele frequency of 30.83%).

Consequences of the Convergence of Multiple Alternate Pathways on the Estrogen Receptor in the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer
Endocrine therapy is the usual first-line therapy for patients with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer. However, resistance to hormone therapies frequently occurs during the course of treatment.

DOI: 10.1016/j.clbc.2016.08.004 This article reviews current understanding of the cellular receptor signaling pathways that interact with estrogen receptors. It also reviews data from recent ongoing clinical trials that examine the effects of targeted therapies, which might interfere with estrogen receptor pathways and might reduce or reverse resistance to traditional, sequential, single-agent endocrine therapy.

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