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PUBLISHED RESEARCH
Researchers Tackle Ovarian Cancer Using a Multidisciplinary Approach
Researchers Tackle Ovarian Cancer Using a Multidisciplinary Approach

September is National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month. Ovarian cancer is among the most deadly of all cancers, though because of less awareness, most cities won’t be as blanketed in teal (ovarian cancer’s awareness color) as they are bathed in pink for October’s focus on breast cancer. But researchers at the Harper Cancer Research Institute, which is a collaboration between the University of Notre Dame and the Indiana University School of Medicine South Bend (IUSM-SB), are working with community partners to not only foster awareness of ovarian cancer, but to develop tests for early detection, create novel chemotherapies, and target the Holy Grail: A cure.

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The effect of health insurance on childhood cancer survival in the United States

The effect of health insurance on childhood cancer survival has not been well studied. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, this study was designed to assess the association between health insurance status and childhood cancer survival.

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Significance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in breast cancer (review)

Cytokines are factors that are known to have both tumor-promoting and inhibitory effects on breast cancer growth depending presumably on their relative concentrations and the presence of other modulating factors. Different cytokines play an important role in controlling the immune system. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with obviously tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibitory effects. 

 

119
The Cancer Genes Needed for Immunotherapy Response

Using a large CRISPR-based screen, researchers find possible genetic culprits for patients not having success with immune checkpoint inhibitors. 

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Researchers look to improve detection of skin cancer lacking pigment melanin

UNC Lineberger researchers led by Nancy Thomas, MD, PhD, have identified key features linked to amelanotic melanoma, a form of skin cancer that lacks the brown or black color that stems from the pigment melanin.

114
High-fat diet might raise lung cancer risk

Findings from this large, international cohort consortium suggest that modifying dietary fat intake (ie, replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat) may reduce lung cancer risk, particularly among smokers and for squamous cell and small cell carcinoma.

104
Genome-wide cancer 'dependency map' now revealed
Initial results reveal more than 760 genetic dependencies across multiple cancers, suggesting opportunities for developing new treatments

In one of the largest efforts to build a comprehensive catalog of genetic vulnerabilities in cancer, researchers have identified more than 760 genes upon which cancer cells from multiple types are strongly dependent for their growth and survival. While many of these dependencies are specific to certain cancer types, about 10 percent are common across multiple cancers, suggesting that a relatively small number of therapies may combat multiple cancer types. Mutations accounted for only a small percentage of dependencies.

103
Clinical Significance of Four Molecular Subtypes of Gastric Cancer Identified by The Cancer Genome Atlas Project

EBV subtype was associated with the best prognosis, and GS subtype was associated with the worst prognosis. Patients with MSI and CIN subtypes had poorer overall survival than those with EBV subtype but better overall survival than those with GS subtype (P = 0.004 and 0.03 in two cohorts, respectively). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, TCGA risk score was an independent prognostic factor [HR, 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2–1.9; P = 0.001]. Patients with the CIN subtype experienced the greatest benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16–0.94; P = 0.03) and those with the GS subtype had the least benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.36–1.89; P = 0.65).

 

 

 

 

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Atezolizumab for Urothelial Cancer, Now Also First-Line

The immunotherapy atezolizumab (Tencetriq, Genentech) has been granted an accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for first-line use in the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) in patients who are not eligible for cisplatin. Atezolizumab was the first cancer immunotherapy approved by the FDA for people with advanced bladder cancer, and it was the first major advance in the field for 30 years. 

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Cardiovascular complications: recently approved drugs are relatively underappreciated.

Published: May 18, 2017,  Cureus
DOI: 10.7759/cureus.1258

Abstract:
Cardio-oncology is a medical discipline that identifies, prevents, and treats the cardiovascular complications related to cancer therapy. Due to the remarkable proliferation of new cancer therapies causing cardiovascular complications, such as hypertension, heart failure, vascular complications, and cardiac arrhythmia, we provide an extensive, comprehensive revision of the most up-to-date scientific information available on the cardiovascular complications associated with the use of newer, novel chemotherapeutic agents, including their reported incidence, suggested pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, potential treatment, and prevention. The authors consider this topic to be relevant for the clinicians since cardiovascular complications associated with the administration of recently approved drugs are relatively underappreciated.
Hurtado-de-mendoza D, Loaiza-bonilla A, Bonilla-reyes P A, et al. (May 18, 2017) Cardio-Oncology: Cancer Therapy-related Cardiovascular Complications in a Molecular Targeted Era: New Concepts and Perspectives. Cureus 9(5): e1258. doi:10.7759/cureus.1258

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Strategies for integrating personalized medicine into healthcare practice
In order for healthcare to transition into personalized medicine, it is necessary for stakeholders to build momentum by implementing a progression of strategies.
Personalized medicine is an evolving field in which physicians use diagnostic tests to identify specific biological markers, often genetic, that help determine which medical treatments and procedures will work best for each patient. By combining this information with an individual's medical records and circumstances, personalized medicine allows doctors and patients to develop targeted treatment and prevention plans.
March 2017, Vol. 14, No. 2, Pages 141-152 , DOI 10.2217/pme-2016-0064
(doi:10.2217/pme-2016-0064)

 

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